# Difference in Differences with sci-kit learn models#

```
from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
import causalpy as cp
```

```
data = cp.load_data("did")
```

```
result = cp.DifferenceInDifferences(
data,
formula="y ~ 1 + group*post_treatment",
time_variable_name="t",
group_variable_name="group",
model=LinearRegression(),
)
```

```
fig, ax = result.plot(round_to=3)
```

```
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/IPython/core/pylabtools.py:77: DeprecationWarning: backend2gui is deprecated since IPython 8.24, backends are managed in matplotlib and can be externally registered.
warnings.warn(
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/IPython/core/pylabtools.py:77: DeprecationWarning: backend2gui is deprecated since IPython 8.24, backends are managed in matplotlib and can be externally registered.
warnings.warn(
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/IPython/core/pylabtools.py:77: DeprecationWarning: backend2gui is deprecated since IPython 8.24, backends are managed in matplotlib and can be externally registered.
warnings.warn(
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:895: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(self._y))
/Users/benjamv/opt/mambaforge/envs/CausalPy/lib/python3.11/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:1463: DeprecationWarning: Conversion of an array with ndim > 0 to a scalar is deprecated, and will error in future. Ensure you extract a single element from your array before performing this operation. (Deprecated NumPy 1.25.)
y = float(self.convert_yunits(y))
```

```
result.summary(round_to=3)
```

```
===========================Difference in Differences============================
Formula: y ~ 1 + group*post_treatment
Results:
Causal impact = 0.50
Model coefficients:
Intercept 0
post_treatment[T.True] 0.986
group 0.162
group:post_treatment[T.True] 0.504
```